Design & Copyright Jan Karman Last revised: August 2016
Population Atlas of the Netherlands
This concise population atlas of the Netherlands shows the population pyramid of the Netherlands and the regional distribution of the population of the Netherlands by municipality in the years 1795, 1850, 1900, 1950 and 2000.
The project aims to develop an interactive population atlas of the Netherlands based on the previously published Bevolkingsatlas van Nederland (Population Atlas of the Netherlands) compiled by NIDI. The interactive population atlas intends to describe both historical and current population trends in the Netherlands using maps, graphs and explanatory texts. The maps are presented in an interactive application.
G A N U E N T A
Otium cum dignitate
Actuarial & Financial Information Systems
Middelburg - The Netherlands
Valuation of bond prices is a big thing at Wall Street and at investment departments of every institutional investor, like insurance companies, pension funds, etc. Buying bonds entitles one to receiving the principal at a given date, plus the contractual interest payments, i.e. coupons.
This, being called the cashflow, has a value, depending on quite a few parameters.
which include the principal, the contractual interest rate, frequency of coupons (usually 2), redemption scheme (at once, linear, annuity, etc), date of closure, date of (starting) redemption and maturity date.
The technique of determination of prices of bonds is known as "Mathematics of Finance" or "Mathematics of Investment"
The general formula x = H + iL can be considered from different view points:
- sum of present values of redemption and intrest
- price as deviation from par, i.e. the present value
of the difference between interest rate and yield
- price related to a non-repayable loan; here the
formulae will always show up as: i/r + ..., since i/r is
the price of a non-repayable loan.
Type (3) is the most practical one for calculations, since it only needs flat annuities, rather than incremental or decremental ones, like needed in Type (1) and (2), and which I used for the functions in the K-script. Further it's an interesting (mathematical) exercise to express a given formula from one type into another.
E.g. the price of an annuity is easy: an(i)/an(r). But expressing this in one of type (1) for example, means headaches!